• Intrusive: Rocks formed deep inside Earth Formed from magma Cool very slowly Have large crystals
  • Extrusive: Rocks formed on or near Earth’s surface Formed from lava Cool very rapidly Have small or no crystals
  • Felsic: Light or red in color Usually Lower density High content of aluminum Mafic: Dark or green in color Usually Higher Density High content of iron or magnesium
  • INTRUSIVE
  • EXTRUSIVE
  • EXTRUSIVE
  • Intrusive
  • EXTRUSIVE
  • Felsic
  • Felsic
  • Mafic
  • Could be Both
  • Definition: Small, solid pieces of material that come from rocks or living things like leaves, shells, etc.
  • Clastic Formed from various rock fragments Deposited by water, wind, glaciers Classified by grain size and shape Formed from Cementation or Compaction
  • Grain Size and Shape Texture Grain Size Composition Comments Rock Name Inorganic Land-Derived Clastic Pebbles, cobbles, and/or boulders embedded in sand, silt and/or clay Mostly quartz, feldspar, and clay minerals; may contain fragments of other rocks and minerals Rounded fragments Conglomerate Angular fragments Breccia Sand (0.2 to 0.006 cm) Fine to course grained Sandstone Silt (0.006 to 0.0004 cm) Very fine grained Siltstone Clay (less than 0.0004 cm) Compact, cannot see individual grains Shale
  • Chemical Formed when minerals dissolved in water crystalize Think back to salt crystal lab Crystalline (Chemical) Fine-grained; crystals from chemical precipitates and evaporates Halite Softer than a fingernail, will not react with acid, salt Rock Salt Gypsum Softer than a fingernail, will not react with acid Rock Gypsum Calcite Carbonate: will react with acid Limestone
  • Organic Sedimentary Rock Forms where the remains of plants & animals are deposited Bioclastic (Organic) Fine to course Calcite Made of shells, will react with acid Coquina Fine-grained Carbon Dark in color; made from plant remains Coal
  • Coal Coquina
  • The term "metamorphic" means "to change form.“ These rocks have been put under high pressure and temperatures They are not melted in this process, instead new minerals and physical make up change
  • There are two types of metamorphic rocks. Each is classified according to its composition and texture. Foliated Nonfoliated.
  • FOLIATED metamorphic rocks are those in which the minerals have been flattened and pushed into layers Examples of foliated rocks are slate, and gneiss.
  • NON-FOLIATED metamorphic rocks do not display layers. Rather, they are massive structures with no obvious banding. The mineral grains grow and rearrange, but they don’t form layers. A good example of non-foliated rock is quartzite or Marble
  • Metamorphism can occur in different degrees The crystals can rearrange themselves without being melted A metamorphic rock can go through metamorphism
  • *
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Unit 3 rock slides

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  • Intrusive: Rocks formed deep inside Earth Formed from magma Cool very slowly Have large crystals
  • Extrusive: Rocks formed on or near Earth’s surface Formed from lava Cool very rapidly Have small or no crystals
  • Felsic: Light or red in color Usually Lower density High content of aluminum Mafic: Dark or green in color Usually Higher Density High content of iron or magnesium
  • INTRUSIVE
  • EXTRUSIVE
  • EXTRUSIVE
  • Intrusive
  • EXTRUSIVE
  • Felsic
  • Felsic
  • Mafic
  • Could be Both
  • Definition: Small, solid pieces of material that come from rocks or living things like leaves, shells, etc.
  • Clastic Formed from various rock fragments Deposited by water, wind, glaciers Classified by grain size and shape Formed from Cementation or Compaction
  • Grain Size and Shape Texture Grain Size Composition Comments Rock Name Inorganic Land-Derived Clastic Pebbles, cobbles, and/or boulders embedded in sand, silt and/or clay Mostly quartz, feldspar, and clay minerals; may contain fragments of other rocks and minerals Rounded fragments Conglomerate Angular fragments Breccia Sand (0.2 to 0.006 cm) Fine to course grained Sandstone Silt (0.006 to 0.0004 cm) Very fine grained Siltstone Clay (less than 0.0004 cm) Compact, cannot see individual grains Shale
  • Chemical Formed when minerals dissolved in water crystalize Think back to salt crystal lab Crystalline (Chemical) Fine-grained; crystals from chemical precipitates and evaporates Halite Softer than a fingernail, will not react with acid, salt Rock Salt Gypsum Softer than a fingernail, will not react with acid Rock Gypsum Calcite Carbonate: will react with acid Limestone
  • Organic Sedimentary Rock Forms where the remains of plants & animals are deposited Bioclastic (Organic) Fine to course Calcite Made of shells, will react with acid Coquina Fine-grained Carbon Dark in color; made from plant remains Coal
  • Coal Coquina
  • The term "metamorphic" means "to change form.“ These rocks have been put under high pressure and temperatures They are not melted in this process, instead new minerals and physical make up change
  • There are two types of metamorphic rocks. Each is classified according to its composition and texture. Foliated Nonfoliated.
  • FOLIATED metamorphic rocks are those in which the minerals have been flattened and pushed into layers Examples of foliated rocks are slate, and gneiss.
  • NON-FOLIATED metamorphic rocks do not display layers. Rather, they are massive structures with no obvious banding. The mineral grains grow and rearrange, but they don’t form layers. A good example of non-foliated rock is quartzite or Marble
  • Metamorphism can occur in different degrees The crystals can rearrange themselves without being melted A metamorphic rock can go through metamorphism
  • *
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