• 1. Training Need Analysis By ARRIFFIN MANSOR Atul©Mathur 2009 www.atulmathur.com
  • 2. Training Need Analysis A corporate approach Arriffin Mansor 2
  • 3. Challenges for the Industry• 1. What are the Training Needs ?• 2.What are the Training Objectives ?• 3. What are the Instructional Principles ?• 4.What should the Course Content be ?• 5.How should the Content be delivered ?• 6.How should the outcomes be Evaluated ?• 7.What makes a good Trainer ? 3
  • 4. Training Development Process 4
  • 5. Training Development Process Performance gaps Competency gaps Training needs ROI training 5
  • 6. Steps in TNA 6
  • 7. Training Need Analysis Competency IdentifyPerformance TrainingGap Analysis gaps Training Analysis Delivery Needsover the Cluster and On the jobfinancial Person combine or off theStatements competency competency job trainingcomparing Profiling gaps into optionsagainst against beststandards core and practices other competencies
  • 8. Model of Training Needs Analysis Stage One Establish organisation’s commitment and direction Stage Two Organisational Performance Analysis Stage Three Gap Analysis on weak performance areas Stage Four Identify Competency Gaps of individuals Stage Five Design training approach and evaluation 8
  • 9. TNA for performance gaps TNA VG 9
  • 10. Person Analysis• Who in the organisation needs training – Performance gaps• How to measure the performance gaps – KPI• What kind of competencies lacking – Competency gaps - KSA deficits• Comparing competencies with standard profile – Interviews, observation and documentation
  • 11. What is KPI in graphic?Input KPI KPI2AfterBefore Before After Output 11 11
  • 12. Sale per ringgit AdvertisingAdvertising Sales/advertising KPI2 After Before Before After Sales 12 12
  • 13. Pulangan terhadap Ekuiti 13
  • 14. Steps in performance based TNA• Identify weak performance areas through Du Pont ratio format.• Conduct job analysis to identify incompetencies• Group incompetencies into core business, management skills, technical skills, functional skills• Rank them in order of importance – KRA – Using pareto principle – Using ROE as sensitivity analysis
  • 15. Zero to critical competency gaps 15
  • 16. The Total Performance Model Sales Gross Margin Net Profit Net Profit Margin ÷ Cost Of Return On Financial Goods Sold Return on Net Worth Leverage Assets Sales Total Expenses = x x Inventory Total Assets Net Profit Net Worth x Total Assets Sales Asset Turnover Current Assets Accts Rec. ÷ Total Assets Fixed Other Current16 Assets Assets
  • 17. PERFORMANCE GAPSAnalysis AssessAnalysis Vision Key Result Areas Key Result Measures Mission 17
  • 18. Vision and StrategyFinancial Customer Process L and G Objectives Measures Strategy- Translation Process Targets Initiatives
  • 19. Komponen Balanced Scorecard: Strategy Map TO BECOME MALAYSIA’S LEADING INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Alignment to PIPV2.0 PROVIDER F1. Increase Shareholder Value Key Initiatives Perspectives 1 Profitable Revenue Growth 2 Effective Cost Management Commercial Financial Excellence F2. Higher Operational F3. Healthy F4. Cost TM Cash Flow Excellence Profitability Efficiency HSBB/NGN Implementation 3 Delight The Customers And Create Synergy With Partners Customers: Consumer & Business, Enterprise & Government, Partners: (Reseller,Vendor,Govt Agency) Relevant Customer SME/Corp.Govt, OLOS, Global Players Subsidiaries Rationalisation C1. Innovative C3. Effective C2. Reliable Supply Chain and C4. Good Products and High Corporate Create One Valued Solutions Services Partner Relationship Management Citizen Company Mindset 4 Innovation & Service Excellence Cut Across All PIP IBP1. Drive IBP2. Achieve IBP3. Successfully IBP4. Accelerate Commercial Operational Implement Relevant Subsidiaries Internal Business Excellence Excellence HSBB Rationalisation IBP5. Effective risk IBP6. Optimise Process and regulatory Manpower & management Productivity 5 Create One Company Mindset Growth Org. Learning & OLG1. Develop Strategic Skills OLG2. Ensure Org. and Competencies Effectiveness
  • 20. What is a critical skill?• A critical skill is one that, if not present, results in a task not being completed satisfactorily, if at all.• The lack of a critical skill causes problems, but the possession of it allows work to continue.• Recognize it by pareto principles or sensitivity analysis 20
  • 21. Analysis and data collection on key roles• Develop job profiles and identify critical skills needed for the job role• Conduct an inventory of current skills• Evaluate employees’ competencies and skill levels 21
  • 22. Training? Training helps toExisting bridge the gap Required• Skills • Skills• Knowledge • Knowledge• Attitudes • Attitudes 22
  • 23. Training Need Analysis (TNA) TNA is a tool toExisting identify the gap Required• Skills • Skills• Knowledge • Knowledge• Attitudes • Attitudes 23
  • 24. TNA (Step 1): Future performance What are the goals for the future performance of our organisation? • profit • growth • customer base • new products •? •?Existing Futureperformance performance 24
  • 25. TNA (Step 2): Challenges What are we concerned about? What’re the challenges today? What challenges we are likely to face in the future?Existing Futurechallenges challenges 25
  • 26. Develop job profiles and identify critical skills needed for the job role• Review current position descriptions for future needs• Consider the impact of upcoming statutory or regulatory changes on the work• Take the time to develop a list of competencies that most clearly and accurately describe what is needed to do the work 26
  • 27. Performance based TNA MORE EFFICIENT 27
  • 28. How to obtain the needed competencies 28
  • 29. Evaluate the relevant job holders• Review Position descriptions• Job class specifications• Detailed Performance evaluations and employee assessments• Interviews/focus group meetings with supervisors, managers, and employees 29
  • 30. Example of database Critical Skills for existing jobs Critical critical criticalIdentified job critical skill 4 current employee skill 1 skill 2 skill 3 customer Responding use of ALDER service by to mailadmin clerk I filing/now database Telephone Requests /future /now /now Current Employee Skills Use of answering SpreadJane Doe type 35 wpm filing use of cash register telephone Sheet programs type 35 Answering copy machine knowledge of WordBill Smith cook wpm telephone repair program knowledge of type 40 furnitureBobby Joe filing AKSAS and use of cash register wpm moving Akpay 30
  • 31. The required training 31
  • 32. Types of competencies 32
  • 33. Level of competencies 33
  • 34. The benefits of Gap Analysis• Helps you refine and define skills the organisation needs, now and in the future• Helps your employees know what critical skills they’ll need to grow• Helps you in recruiting efforts when current employees don’t have the skills or the interest 34
  • 35. By performance and competency gap analysis• We should obtain the following knowledge and skill gaps – The types and – The level• Training is to bridge the gaps with the right competencies 35
  • 36. Types and depths of competencies 36
  • 37. Steps in training needs 37
  • 38. Evaluating Performance 38
  • 39. Critical Performance Gaps• Obtain ROE du pont Chart• Convert figures into KPIs• Compare with industry best and standards• Observe trends and variances• Is the root cause performance or other factors?• Prioritise 4 to 5 performance gaps 39
  • 40. Steps in critical competency gaps• Compare with best practices – Conduct and identify task and sub-task gaps – Is the gap caused by lack of competencies – Identify the knowledge skills and attitude required through Key Result Areas and BSC perspectives 40
  • 41. Examples of KPIs Education• % Of graduates who can find work within 6 months• % Of graduates who have received job offers from multi-national corporations• Publications in international journals ÷ staffs• Publications in international journals ÷ research projects• % Of laboratory equipment in use• % Of texts in elective courses that have been published in the past 10 years• % Of courses that have adapted the use of multi- media software• % Of incoming students from top-tier high schools 41
  • 42. Linking with Analysis/ evaluation1. Internal analysis/ evaluation (comparison with past performance in terms of trend and variation, and with the internally- established targets, expectation, and anticipation)2. External analysis/ evaluation (comparison with standards, benchmarks, industrial averages with respect to the industries/ clusters, benchmarking partners, and competitors) Performance Management 42
  • 43. Define the problem – the gaps Describe Discrepancy DESIRED PERFORMANCE (Optimal)- ACTUAL PERFORMANCE (Actual) = POSSIBLE TRAINING NEED 43
  • 44. Competency Analysis• What are competencies? – Enduring characteristics of a person that result in superior on-the-job performance – Areas of personal capability that enable employees to successfully perform their jobs by achieving outcomes or successfully performing tasks 44
  • 45. What is a competency model?• Identifies the competencies necessary for each job as well as the knowledge, skills, behavior, and personality characteristics underlying each competency. 45
  • 46. ROI• ROI measures the contribution of a program/solution designed in relation to the costs or capital involved• ROI = Value of Benefits – Cost of Training Cost of Training 46
  • 47. More popular Types of Evaluation • Balanced Scorecard (Drs Kaplan and Norton), • Kirkpatrick Four-Level Framework (Kirkpatrick, 1975), • Jack Phillips’s Five Levels of Evaluation 47
  • 48. Donald Kirkpatrick’s Model of Evaluation (1979)• Level 1 Reaction Evaluation• Level 2 Learning Evaluation• Level 3 Transfer of Learning Evaluation• Level 4 Results Evaluation This model is also adopted by Singapore Skills Development Fund (SDF) for companies’ Training Effectiveness Reports to SDF for funding purposes. 48
  • 49. What Companies Do With ROI Data?• Improve program/Process• Discontinue/Expand Programs• Approve projects (If Pilot)• Rank projects• Like a front end analysis – to decide whether worthwhile to proceed on the training project.• Develop Data Base of Program Results• Inform/Educate Management• Inform/Educate target Groups• Build Skills with Staff 49
  • 50. Tabulating Cost of the Program • Cost components that should be includedTabulating are :cost of the • Travel, lodging, and meal costs for the program participants • Salaries, plus employee benefits of the participants who attend the training • Administrative and overhead costs of the training function, allocated in some convenient way
  • 51. EVALUATE PERFORMANCE MOTIVATION
  • 52. ROI Process Inputs Tabulating Before Training training Costs Isolating the Obtain true CalculatingCollecting Other outcome the Return on KPI data Effects Investment After CalculateTraining IRR Outputs 52
  • 53. Trend Lines Analysis Actual sales performance At the beginning of The May, a Sales training differenceVolume of Sales Program session was represents held the estimate impact of training. Trend Projection Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug
  • 54. ROI of Training Model Isolate the Convert Data Collect Data Effects of to Monetary Training Values Identify Intangible Calculate ROI Benefits of Training Tabulate Program Costs
  • 55. Instructional ObjectivesWhy are they important?• A basis for planning the training• A roadmap for the learner• A basis for evaluating effectiveness of the training Will objectives ever change during the delivery of training? 55
  • 56. Examples of Business Results• Coca Cola – 8 half-day on supervisory skills workshops – 1447% ROI, Benefit/Cost Ratio 15:1• Yellow Freight System – Performance Appraisal Course – 1115% ROI, Benefit/Coast ratio 12:1• Litton Industries (Avionics) – Self Directed Work Team course – Productivity increased 30%, Scrap rate reduction 50%, 700% ROI• Multi-Marques, Inc (Bakery) – 15 hr Supervisory Skills Training – 215% ROI, Benefit/Cost Ratio 3.2:1 56
  • 57. How do we measure performance output as a result of training?• Isolate the effects by getting before and after training performance data.• Performance data of with and without training groups - Jack Phillips• Input output graphic model 57
  • 58. Input Output Analysis• Identify key output for the job to be analyzed• Identify the input variable for the output with cause effect relationship• Compute the KPI by dividing output with the input. It is a ratio.• Obtain before and targeted KPIs and insert the actual KPIs in the diagram.• Separate the value of the output based on volume and efficiency. 58
  • 59. Example of input output dimension for Sales• Output is net profits in a week RM20,000• Input is weekly sales figure RM100,000• The KPI is 0.20 profit per ringgit sales or return on sales• Insert the previous performance KPI which may be 0.15 profit per ringgit sales• The performance gap between the old and the new position. 59
  • 60. Performance levels 60
  • 61. Measuring the Output• After Profit 0.20 x 100,000 = 20,000• Before Profit 0.15 x 100,000 = 15,000• Performance Improvement = 5,000• Efficiency improvement• Volume improvement 61
  • 62. Input Output Analysis• Calculate the total cost of training or intervention• Identify the input and output variable that determine performance.• The relationship must be meaningful which has high cause effect relationship• Isolate the impact of training with the following test, with and without, before and after. 62
  • 63. ROI trainingROI =(Value of benefits –cost of training)/Cost of trainingBenefit Cost Ratio 71,760 = 2.2:1 32,984ROI (%) = 38,776 = 118% 32,984 63
  • 64. Objective driven Contents Section 1 …….. …….. …….. ……..Objectives Section 2 …….. •…….. …….. …….. •…….. …….. Section 3 •…….. …….. •…….. …….. …….. …….. Section 4 …….. …….. …….. …….. 64
  • 65. DELIVERING CUSTOMISED TRAINING SUCCESSFULLY “Tell me and I forget, teach me and I remember, involve me and I learn” - Benjamin Franklin 65
  • 66. “Cone of Experience” People generally remember: Read10% of what they read Verbal20% of what they hear Hear Words Watch still picture30% of what they see Watch moving picture Visual50% of what they hear Watch demonstrationand see70% of what they Do a site visitsay or write Do a dramatic presentation Kinesthetic90% of whatthey say as Simulate a real experience (Experiential)they do a thing Do the real thing Adapted from Wiman & Meirhenry, .Educational Media, 1960 on Edgar Dale
  • 67. If training is the answer….• Formal training• Self study• Technology based• Job related/workplace approaches 67
  • 68. Exercises and ActivitiesGet learners to do something whenever possible…• Hands-on• Written or oral exercise• Small and whole group interactions• Role-playing, simulations What should the type of activity be determined by? www.islamicbankingcourses.com 68
  • 69. What training activities are available? Activity Pros Cons Opportunity to Does not involve Demonstration provide feedback everyone Good practice for May be dominated Role Play participants and by a few involvement participants Good for high Passive and not Lecture content if stimulating presenter is good Good focus and May be dominated Case Study high involvement by a few participants High content and Low learner Panel Discussion variety of involvement perspectives www.islamicbankingcourses.com 69
  • 70. Available Training Activities (continued) Activities Pros Cons Provide high Not veryReading content stimulating Mechanisms must Allow for sensory be in place toField Trips perception if well ensure learning structured happens Highly May be dominatedSmall Group Tasks participatory and by a few task oriented participants Good focus and Little participantVideo or Film pre-designed interaction Highly energizing May be dominatedLarge Group and high by a fewDiscussion participation participants` www.islamicbankingcourses.com 70
  • 71. Evaluations• Evaluate based on objectives• Did the participants: – learn what you had planned? – implement what they learned? – improve their job performance ? www.islamicbankingcourses.com 71
  • 72. After the Class KIRKPATRICK• Learner evaluations – How did they feel about the class?• Evaluate your delivery – How could you improve it?• Evaluate your materials design – How could they be improved? www.islamicbankingcourses.com 72
  • 73. Purpose of Training is to Produce Change In…• Skills – how to – steps• Knowledge – critical thinking – decision making• Attitudes – ethics/values – behaviour 73
  • 74. Skills Required to be a Trainer • Subject matter expertise • Design – instructional design – apply learning principles • Material production – graphics, layout, media creation – computer experience • Presentation – voice, personality, technical expertise 74
  • 75. Personal Qualities to Look For in a Trainer• Self-confidence • Ability to listen • Sense of humour• Awareness of • Communication & environment theatrical skills• Ability to build • Flexibility bridges—relate old • Patience to new • Cool head & warm• Organisational skills heart• Desire to learn 75
  • 76. TNA steps• Using KPI identify Critical Performance gaps ( ROE format )• Critical Competency gaps of key persons• Best practices shall determine key competencies• Effective Delivery strategies• ROI / IRR training (justifying) 76
  • 77. Steps in TNA1. Determine target performance and measure gaps with current.2. With performance gaps asses employee competency gaps.3. Determine strategies to deliver competencies4. Justifying training 77
  • 78. The bigger picture Organisational performance Employee performance Employee Skills, Knowledge and Attitudes Employee education, experience and training 78
  • 79. Cause Solution• If skill or knowledge……….training• If lack feedback……………..feedback, standards• If not motivated…………….rewards, consequences• If unclear expectations…..std, measure, discuss• If job environment…………change environment• If potential……………………change personnel
  • 80. TNA (Step 4): New Skills, knowledge and Attitudes In order for our employees to perform differently, what kind of new Skills, Knowledge and Attitudes they need to have?Existing Required•Skills • Skills•Knowledge • Knowledge•Attitudes • Attitudes 80
  • 81. TNA (Step 5): Training needs Now that we know what kind of new Skills, knowledge and Attitudes are required for our employees, how can we bridge the gap?Existing Required•Skills • Skills•Knowledge • Knowledge•Attitudes • Attitudes 81
  • 82. TNA in essence…1 Start with future organisational goals and challenges Assess required employee performance to meet the 2 goals and challenges Assess required employee Skills, Knowledge and Attitudes to deliver the performance 3 Identify employee training needs to bridge the gap 4 82
  • 83. TNA steps - to recap• Establish future goals• Measure past and future performance gaps – identify critical gaps• Perform competency gap analysis on relevant staff• Is training the necessary intervention?• Alternative delivery strategies• Justifying training strategies 83
  • 84. INTERNAL PROCESSINPUT PROCESS OUTPUT OUTCOMEMaterial variancesLabourOverhead Efficiency No Average ratios produced cost per transactionResearch Productivity Value ROIdev ratios producedexpenseInventory Averageturnover lead time Waste Reduction 84
  • 85. HRM KPIsINPUT PROCESS OUTPUT OUTCOMEIncentives variances Turnover ratioHours Efficiency No Profit per ratios produced employeeTraining Productivity Value ROI ratios producedSalary Average Turnover Revenue per lead time employeeSkill Waste Reduction Employee Value added percompetency productivity employee 85
  • 86. FINANCIAL KPIsINPUT PROCESS OUTPUT OUTCOMEMaterial variancesLabourOverhead Efficiency No Average ratios produced cost per transactionResearch Productivity Value ROIdev ratios producedexpenseInventory Average RETURNturnover lead time ON EQUITY Waste Reduction 86
  • 87. INTERNAL PROCESSINPUT PROCESS OUTPUT OUTCOMEMaterial variancesLabourOverhead Efficiency No Average ratios produced cost per transactionResearch Productivity Value ROIdev ratios producedexpenseInventory Averageturnover lead time Waste Reduction 87
  • 88. MARKETINGINPUT PROCESS OUTPUT OUTCOMEMaterial Response rate No of customersLabour Marketing costs % Sales volumeOverhead Efficiency ratios Customers ProfitabilityResearch Productivity Product ROAdev ratios profitability marketingexpense Average cost per Customer acquisition Return on transaction SalesInventory Average lead time Customer retentionturnoverPrice rel to Waste Reduction Revenue growth 88comp
  • 89. Analysis and Improvement BasicsInternal Analysis:• Trends: Individuals, Cross-examination, and Overall (withMCPMT)• Target ComparisonExternal Analysis:• Benchmarking• Standard Comparisons 89
  • 90. Ratio-format Measures Private Firm Upstream Input Process Outputs Downstrea s es mSuppliers Staffs Planning Products Revenue and ProfitSubcontracto Instrument Procurement Servicesrs s and after Quality of Approval Equipment Sales Services Production (Replacement, Facility Reports Repairs, Return, Inspection and Capital Recall, etc.) Document Warehousin Utilities s Customer g Satisfaction Raw Delivery Materials Regulatory 90 Compliance
  • 91. Ratio-format Measures University Upstream Inputs Processes Outputs DownstreamHigh Schools Staffs Teaching Graduates Qualifications for WorkplaceSuppliers Students Approval Research Suitable SkillsSubcontractorsInstrumentsExperiments Reports and EmploymentBudget BureauFacility Review Documents Continuous Budget Planning Seminars Education Utilities Procurement Intellectual Publications Properties Revenue 91
  • 92. Ongoing Research in the Area of PerformanceMeasurement:• Verification of Sink’s HypotheticalInterrelationships among 7 PerformanceCriteria with MCPMT• Guidelines for Selecting and Utilizing KPIsfor Monitoring and Evaluation• White-collar Productivity Measurement withinthe Context of Performance-based Contracts(or Performance Agreements) 92
  • 93. The EndQuestions please
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Training Needs Analysis 350

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  • 1. Training Need Analysis By ARRIFFIN MANSOR Atul©Mathur 2009 www.atulmathur.com
  • 2. Training Need Analysis A corporate approach Arriffin Mansor 2
  • 3. Challenges for the Industry• 1. What are the Training Needs ?• 2.What are the Training Objectives ?• 3. What are the Instructional Principles ?• 4.What should the Course Content be ?• 5.How should the Content be delivered ?• 6.How should the outcomes be Evaluated ?• 7.What makes a good Trainer ? 3
  • 4. Training Development Process 4
  • 5. Training Development Process Performance gaps Competency gaps Training needs ROI training 5
  • 6. Steps in TNA 6
  • 7. Training Need Analysis Competency IdentifyPerformance TrainingGap Analysis gaps Training Analysis Delivery Needsover the Cluster and On the jobfinancial Person combine or off theStatements competency competency job trainingcomparing Profiling gaps into optionsagainst against beststandards core and practices other competencies
  • 8. Model of Training Needs Analysis Stage One Establish organisation’s commitment and direction Stage Two Organisational Performance Analysis Stage Three Gap Analysis on weak performance areas Stage Four Identify Competency Gaps of individuals Stage Five Design training approach and evaluation 8
  • 9. TNA for performance gaps TNA VG 9
  • 10. Person Analysis• Who in the organisation needs training – Performance gaps• How to measure the performance gaps – KPI• What kind of competencies lacking – Competency gaps - KSA deficits• Comparing competencies with standard profile – Interviews, observation and documentation
  • 11. What is KPI in graphic?Input KPI KPI2AfterBefore Before After Output 11 11
  • 12. Sale per ringgit AdvertisingAdvertising Sales/advertising KPI2 After Before Before After Sales 12 12
  • 13. Pulangan terhadap Ekuiti 13
  • 14. Steps in performance based TNA• Identify weak performance areas through Du Pont ratio format.• Conduct job analysis to identify incompetencies• Group incompetencies into core business, management skills, technical skills, functional skills• Rank them in order of importance – KRA – Using pareto principle – Using ROE as sensitivity analysis
  • 15. Zero to critical competency gaps 15
  • 16. The Total Performance Model Sales Gross Margin Net Profit Net Profit Margin ÷ Cost Of Return On Financial Goods Sold Return on Net Worth Leverage Assets Sales Total Expenses = x x Inventory Total Assets Net Profit Net Worth x Total Assets Sales Asset Turnover Current Assets Accts Rec. ÷ Total Assets Fixed Other Current16 Assets Assets
  • 17. PERFORMANCE GAPSAnalysis AssessAnalysis Vision Key Result Areas Key Result Measures Mission 17
  • 18. Vision and StrategyFinancial Customer Process L and G Objectives Measures Strategy- Translation Process Targets Initiatives
  • 19. Komponen Balanced Scorecard: Strategy Map TO BECOME MALAYSIA’S LEADING INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Alignment to PIPV2.0 PROVIDER F1. Increase Shareholder Value Key Initiatives Perspectives 1 Profitable Revenue Growth 2 Effective Cost Management Commercial Financial Excellence F2. Higher Operational F3. Healthy F4. Cost TM Cash Flow Excellence Profitability Efficiency HSBB/NGN Implementation 3 Delight The Customers And Create Synergy With Partners Customers: Consumer & Business, Enterprise & Government, Partners: (Reseller,Vendor,Govt Agency) Relevant Customer SME/Corp.Govt, OLOS, Global Players Subsidiaries Rationalisation C1. Innovative C3. Effective C2. Reliable Supply Chain and C4. Good Products and High Corporate Create One Valued Solutions Services Partner Relationship Management Citizen Company Mindset 4 Innovation & Service Excellence Cut Across All PIP IBP1. Drive IBP2. Achieve IBP3. Successfully IBP4. Accelerate Commercial Operational Implement Relevant Subsidiaries Internal Business Excellence Excellence HSBB Rationalisation IBP5. Effective risk IBP6. Optimise Process and regulatory Manpower & management Productivity 5 Create One Company Mindset Growth Org. Learning & OLG1. Develop Strategic Skills OLG2. Ensure Org. and Competencies Effectiveness
  • 20. What is a critical skill?• A critical skill is one that, if not present, results in a task not being completed satisfactorily, if at all.• The lack of a critical skill causes problems, but the possession of it allows work to continue.• Recognize it by pareto principles or sensitivity analysis 20
  • 21. Analysis and data collection on key roles• Develop job profiles and identify critical skills needed for the job role• Conduct an inventory of current skills• Evaluate employees’ competencies and skill levels 21
  • 22. Training? Training helps toExisting bridge the gap Required• Skills • Skills• Knowledge • Knowledge• Attitudes • Attitudes 22
  • 23. Training Need Analysis (TNA) TNA is a tool toExisting identify the gap Required• Skills • Skills• Knowledge • Knowledge• Attitudes • Attitudes 23
  • 24. TNA (Step 1): Future performance What are the goals for the future performance of our organisation? • profit • growth • customer base • new products •? •?Existing Futureperformance performance 24
  • 25. TNA (Step 2): Challenges What are we concerned about? What’re the challenges today? What challenges we are likely to face in the future?Existing Futurechallenges challenges 25
  • 26. Develop job profiles and identify critical skills needed for the job role• Review current position descriptions for future needs• Consider the impact of upcoming statutory or regulatory changes on the work• Take the time to develop a list of competencies that most clearly and accurately describe what is needed to do the work 26
  • 27. Performance based TNA MORE EFFICIENT 27
  • 28. How to obtain the needed competencies 28
  • 29. Evaluate the relevant job holders• Review Position descriptions• Job class specifications• Detailed Performance evaluations and employee assessments• Interviews/focus group meetings with supervisors, managers, and employees 29
  • 30. Example of database Critical Skills for existing jobs Critical critical criticalIdentified job critical skill 4 current employee skill 1 skill 2 skill 3 customer Responding use of ALDER service by to mailadmin clerk I filing/now database Telephone Requests /future /now /now Current Employee Skills Use of answering SpreadJane Doe type 35 wpm filing use of cash register telephone Sheet programs type 35 Answering copy machine knowledge of WordBill Smith cook wpm telephone repair program knowledge of type 40 furnitureBobby Joe filing AKSAS and use of cash register wpm moving Akpay 30
  • 31. The required training 31
  • 32. Types of competencies 32
  • 33. Level of competencies 33
  • 34. The benefits of Gap Analysis• Helps you refine and define skills the organisation needs, now and in the future• Helps your employees know what critical skills they’ll need to grow• Helps you in recruiting efforts when current employees don’t have the skills or the interest 34
  • 35. By performance and competency gap analysis• We should obtain the following knowledge and skill gaps – The types and – The level• Training is to bridge the gaps with the right competencies 35
  • 36. Types and depths of competencies 36
  • 37. Steps in training needs 37
  • 38. Evaluating Performance 38
  • 39. Critical Performance Gaps• Obtain ROE du pont Chart• Convert figures into KPIs• Compare with industry best and standards• Observe trends and variances• Is the root cause performance or other factors?• Prioritise 4 to 5 performance gaps 39
  • 40. Steps in critical competency gaps• Compare with best practices – Conduct and identify task and sub-task gaps – Is the gap caused by lack of competencies – Identify the knowledge skills and attitude required through Key Result Areas and BSC perspectives 40
  • 41. Examples of KPIs Education• % Of graduates who can find work within 6 months• % Of graduates who have received job offers from multi-national corporations• Publications in international journals ÷ staffs• Publications in international journals ÷ research projects• % Of laboratory equipment in use• % Of texts in elective courses that have been published in the past 10 years• % Of courses that have adapted the use of multi- media software• % Of incoming students from top-tier high schools 41
  • 42. Linking with Analysis/ evaluation1. Internal analysis/ evaluation (comparison with past performance in terms of trend and variation, and with the internally- established targets, expectation, and anticipation)2. External analysis/ evaluation (comparison with standards, benchmarks, industrial averages with respect to the industries/ clusters, benchmarking partners, and competitors) Performance Management 42
  • 43. Define the problem – the gaps Describe Discrepancy DESIRED PERFORMANCE (Optimal)- ACTUAL PERFORMANCE (Actual) = POSSIBLE TRAINING NEED 43
  • 44. Competency Analysis• What are competencies? – Enduring characteristics of a person that result in superior on-the-job performance – Areas of personal capability that enable employees to successfully perform their jobs by achieving outcomes or successfully performing tasks 44
  • 45. What is a competency model?• Identifies the competencies necessary for each job as well as the knowledge, skills, behavior, and personality characteristics underlying each competency. 45
  • 46. ROI• ROI measures the contribution of a program/solution designed in relation to the costs or capital involved• ROI = Value of Benefits – Cost of Training Cost of Training 46
  • 47. More popular Types of Evaluation • Balanced Scorecard (Drs Kaplan and Norton), • Kirkpatrick Four-Level Framework (Kirkpatrick, 1975), • Jack Phillips’s Five Levels of Evaluation 47
  • 48. Donald Kirkpatrick’s Model of Evaluation (1979)• Level 1 Reaction Evaluation• Level 2 Learning Evaluation• Level 3 Transfer of Learning Evaluation• Level 4 Results Evaluation This model is also adopted by Singapore Skills Development Fund (SDF) for companies’ Training Effectiveness Reports to SDF for funding purposes. 48
  • 49. What Companies Do With ROI Data?• Improve program/Process• Discontinue/Expand Programs• Approve projects (If Pilot)• Rank projects• Like a front end analysis – to decide whether worthwhile to proceed on the training project.• Develop Data Base of Program Results• Inform/Educate Management• Inform/Educate target Groups• Build Skills with Staff 49
  • 50. Tabulating Cost of the Program • Cost components that should be includedTabulating are :cost of the • Travel, lodging, and meal costs for the program participants • Salaries, plus employee benefits of the participants who attend the training • Administrative and overhead costs of the training function, allocated in some convenient way
  • 51. EVALUATE PERFORMANCE MOTIVATION
  • 52. ROI Process Inputs Tabulating Before Training training Costs Isolating the Obtain true CalculatingCollecting Other outcome the Return on KPI data Effects Investment After CalculateTraining IRR Outputs 52
  • 53. Trend Lines Analysis Actual sales performance At the beginning of The May, a Sales training differenceVolume of Sales Program session was represents held the estimate impact of training. Trend Projection Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug
  • 54. ROI of Training Model Isolate the Convert Data Collect Data Effects of to Monetary Training Values Identify Intangible Calculate ROI Benefits of Training Tabulate Program Costs
  • 55. Instructional ObjectivesWhy are they important?• A basis for planning the training• A roadmap for the learner• A basis for evaluating effectiveness of the training Will objectives ever change during the delivery of training? 55
  • 56. Examples of Business Results• Coca Cola – 8 half-day on supervisory skills workshops – 1447% ROI, Benefit/Cost Ratio 15:1• Yellow Freight System – Performance Appraisal Course – 1115% ROI, Benefit/Coast ratio 12:1• Litton Industries (Avionics) – Self Directed Work Team course – Productivity increased 30%, Scrap rate reduction 50%, 700% ROI• Multi-Marques, Inc (Bakery) – 15 hr Supervisory Skills Training – 215% ROI, Benefit/Cost Ratio 3.2:1 56
  • 57. How do we measure performance output as a result of training?• Isolate the effects by getting before and after training performance data.• Performance data of with and without training groups - Jack Phillips• Input output graphic model 57
  • 58. Input Output Analysis• Identify key output for the job to be analyzed• Identify the input variable for the output with cause effect relationship• Compute the KPI by dividing output with the input. It is a ratio.• Obtain before and targeted KPIs and insert the actual KPIs in the diagram.• Separate the value of the output based on volume and efficiency. 58
  • 59. Example of input output dimension for Sales• Output is net profits in a week RM20,000• Input is weekly sales figure RM100,000• The KPI is 0.20 profit per ringgit sales or return on sales• Insert the previous performance KPI which may be 0.15 profit per ringgit sales• The performance gap between the old and the new position. 59
  • 60. Performance levels 60
  • 61. Measuring the Output• After Profit 0.20 x 100,000 = 20,000• Before Profit 0.15 x 100,000 = 15,000• Performance Improvement = 5,000• Efficiency improvement• Volume improvement 61
  • 62. Input Output Analysis• Calculate the total cost of training or intervention• Identify the input and output variable that determine performance.• The relationship must be meaningful which has high cause effect relationship• Isolate the impact of training with the following test, with and without, before and after. 62
  • 63. ROI trainingROI =(Value of benefits –cost of training)/Cost of trainingBenefit Cost Ratio 71,760 = 2.2:1 32,984ROI (%) = 38,776 = 118% 32,984 63
  • 64. Objective driven Contents Section 1 …….. …….. …….. ……..Objectives Section 2 …….. •…….. …….. …….. •…….. …….. Section 3 •…….. …….. •…….. …….. …….. …….. Section 4 …….. …….. …….. …….. 64
  • 65. DELIVERING CUSTOMISED TRAINING SUCCESSFULLY “Tell me and I forget, teach me and I remember, involve me and I learn” - Benjamin Franklin 65
  • 66. “Cone of Experience” People generally remember: Read10% of what they read Verbal20% of what they hear Hear Words Watch still picture30% of what they see Watch moving picture Visual50% of what they hear Watch demonstrationand see70% of what they Do a site visitsay or write Do a dramatic presentation Kinesthetic90% of whatthey say as Simulate a real experience (Experiential)they do a thing Do the real thing Adapted from Wiman & Meirhenry, .Educational Media, 1960 on Edgar Dale
  • 67. If training is the answer….• Formal training• Self study• Technology based• Job related/workplace approaches 67
  • 68. Exercises and ActivitiesGet learners to do something whenever possible…• Hands-on• Written or oral exercise• Small and whole group interactions• Role-playing, simulations What should the type of activity be determined by? www.islamicbankingcourses.com 68
  • 69. What training activities are available? Activity Pros Cons Opportunity to Does not involve Demonstration provide feedback everyone Good practice for May be dominated Role Play participants and by a few involvement participants Good for high Passive and not Lecture content if stimulating presenter is good Good focus and May be dominated Case Study high involvement by a few participants High content and Low learner Panel Discussion variety of involvement perspectives www.islamicbankingcourses.com 69
  • 70. Available Training Activities (continued) Activities Pros Cons Provide high Not veryReading content stimulating Mechanisms must Allow for sensory be in place toField Trips perception if well ensure learning structured happens Highly May be dominatedSmall Group Tasks participatory and by a few task oriented participants Good focus and Little participantVideo or Film pre-designed interaction Highly energizing May be dominatedLarge Group and high by a fewDiscussion participation participants` www.islamicbankingcourses.com 70
  • 71. Evaluations• Evaluate based on objectives• Did the participants: – learn what you had planned? – implement what they learned? – improve their job performance ? www.islamicbankingcourses.com 71
  • 72. After the Class KIRKPATRICK• Learner evaluations – How did they feel about the class?• Evaluate your delivery – How could you improve it?• Evaluate your materials design – How could they be improved? www.islamicbankingcourses.com 72
  • 73. Purpose of Training is to Produce Change In…• Skills – how to – steps• Knowledge – critical thinking – decision making• Attitudes – ethics/values – behaviour 73
  • 74. Skills Required to be a Trainer • Subject matter expertise • Design – instructional design – apply learning principles • Material production – graphics, layout, media creation – computer experience • Presentation – voice, personality, technical expertise 74
  • 75. Personal Qualities to Look For in a Trainer• Self-confidence • Ability to listen • Sense of humour• Awareness of • Communication & environment theatrical skills• Ability to build • Flexibility bridges—relate old • Patience to new • Cool head & warm• Organisational skills heart• Desire to learn 75
  • 76. TNA steps• Using KPI identify Critical Performance gaps ( ROE format )• Critical Competency gaps of key persons• Best practices shall determine key competencies• Effective Delivery strategies• ROI / IRR training (justifying) 76
  • 77. Steps in TNA1. Determine target performance and measure gaps with current.2. With performance gaps asses employee competency gaps.3. Determine strategies to deliver competencies4. Justifying training 77
  • 78. The bigger picture Organisational performance Employee performance Employee Skills, Knowledge and Attitudes Employee education, experience and training 78
  • 79. Cause Solution• If skill or knowledge……….training• If lack feedback……………..feedback, standards• If not motivated…………….rewards, consequences• If unclear expectations…..std, measure, discuss• If job environment…………change environment• If potential……………………change personnel
  • 80. TNA (Step 4): New Skills, knowledge and Attitudes In order for our employees to perform differently, what kind of new Skills, Knowledge and Attitudes they need to have?Existing Required•Skills • Skills•Knowledge • Knowledge•Attitudes • Attitudes 80
  • 81. TNA (Step 5): Training needs Now that we know what kind of new Skills, knowledge and Attitudes are required for our employees, how can we bridge the gap?Existing Required•Skills • Skills•Knowledge • Knowledge•Attitudes • Attitudes 81
  • 82. TNA in essence…1 Start with future organisational goals and challenges Assess required employee performance to meet the 2 goals and challenges Assess required employee Skills, Knowledge and Attitudes to deliver the performance 3 Identify employee training needs to bridge the gap 4 82
  • 83. TNA steps - to recap• Establish future goals• Measure past and future performance gaps – identify critical gaps• Perform competency gap analysis on relevant staff• Is training the necessary intervention?• Alternative delivery strategies• Justifying training strategies 83
  • 84. INTERNAL PROCESSINPUT PROCESS OUTPUT OUTCOMEMaterial variancesLabourOverhead Efficiency No Average ratios produced cost per transactionResearch Productivity Value ROIdev ratios producedexpenseInventory Averageturnover lead time Waste Reduction 84
  • 85. HRM KPIsINPUT PROCESS OUTPUT OUTCOMEIncentives variances Turnover ratioHours Efficiency No Profit per ratios produced employeeTraining Productivity Value ROI ratios producedSalary Average Turnover Revenue per lead time employeeSkill Waste Reduction Employee Value added percompetency productivity employee 85
  • 86. FINANCIAL KPIsINPUT PROCESS OUTPUT OUTCOMEMaterial variancesLabourOverhead Efficiency No Average ratios produced cost per transactionResearch Productivity Value ROIdev ratios producedexpenseInventory Average RETURNturnover lead time ON EQUITY Waste Reduction 86
  • 87. INTERNAL PROCESSINPUT PROCESS OUTPUT OUTCOMEMaterial variancesLabourOverhead Efficiency No Average ratios produced cost per transactionResearch Productivity Value ROIdev ratios producedexpenseInventory Averageturnover lead time Waste Reduction 87
  • 88. MARKETINGINPUT PROCESS OUTPUT OUTCOMEMaterial Response rate No of customersLabour Marketing costs % Sales volumeOverhead Efficiency ratios Customers ProfitabilityResearch Productivity Product ROAdev ratios profitability marketingexpense Average cost per Customer acquisition Return on transaction SalesInventory Average lead time Customer retentionturnoverPrice rel to Waste Reduction Revenue growth 88comp
  • 89. Analysis and Improvement BasicsInternal Analysis:• Trends: Individuals, Cross-examination, and Overall (withMCPMT)• Target ComparisonExternal Analysis:• Benchmarking• Standard Comparisons 89
  • 90. Ratio-format Measures Private Firm Upstream Input Process Outputs Downstrea s es mSuppliers Staffs Planning Products Revenue and ProfitSubcontracto Instrument Procurement Servicesrs s and after Quality of Approval Equipment Sales Services Production (Replacement, Facility Reports Repairs, Return, Inspection and Capital Recall, etc.) Document Warehousin Utilities s Customer g Satisfaction Raw Delivery Materials Regulatory 90 Compliance
  • 91. Ratio-format Measures University Upstream Inputs Processes Outputs DownstreamHigh Schools Staffs Teaching Graduates Qualifications for WorkplaceSuppliers Students Approval Research Suitable SkillsSubcontractorsInstrumentsExperiments Reports and EmploymentBudget BureauFacility Review Documents Continuous Budget Planning Seminars Education Utilities Procurement Intellectual Publications Properties Revenue 91
  • 92. Ongoing Research in the Area of PerformanceMeasurement:• Verification of Sink’s HypotheticalInterrelationships among 7 PerformanceCriteria with MCPMT• Guidelines for Selecting and Utilizing KPIsfor Monitoring and Evaluation• White-collar Productivity Measurement withinthe Context of Performance-based Contracts(or Performance Agreements) 92
  • 93. The EndQuestions please
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